Rohtang Pass:

Rohtang Pass (elevation 3,978 m) is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh, It is present on the Pir Panjal Range of Himalayas. It connects the Kullu Valley with Lahaul and Spiti Valleys of Himachal Pradesh. The Ravi river rises west of the Rohtang pass in the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh. The world’s longest tunnel (8.8km) above 10,000 feet -Rohtang Tunnel (Atal Tunnel) is under construction to connect villages in Lahaul-Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) to the rest of the country even during winters.


Zoonotic Diseases:

Zoonotic diseases, also called zoonosis, are illnesses caused by germs that are passed between animals and people. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 60% of all infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic, and about 75% of all emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature. Emerging pathogens are more likely to be viruses, than any other kind bacteria, parasites, fungi and are more likely to have a broad host range.

  • Among zoonosis that emerged or re-emerged recently, the UNEP counts
  1. Ebola,
  2. Rift Valley fever
  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
  4. Bird flu ( Avian Influenza)
  5. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
  6. West Nile virus
  7. Zika virus disease
  8. COVID-19


Unified Geologic Map of the Moon:

The first-ever digital, unified, global, geological map of the moon was released virtually by the  United States Geological Survey (USGS), NASA and the Lunar Planetary Institute. The UGM will serve as a blueprint for future human missions and a source of research and analysis for the educators and the general public interested in lunar geology. The moon’s South Pole is especially interesting because the area is much larger than the North Pole and there could be a possibility of the presence of water in these permanently shadowed areas. The Chandrayaan 2, an active mission also targets the Lunar South Pole for exploration.



The United Nations Environment Programme is responsible for coordinating the UN’s environmental activities and assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices. UNEP was founded in June 1972 by Canadian businessman and philanthropist Maurice Strong, its first director, following the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference). UNEP helps fund and implement specific environmental development projects worldwide, such as reforestation and wetlands restoration.


Reverse Vaccinology:

Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs applied bioinformatics. The basic idea behind it is that an entire pathogenic genome can be screened using bioinformatics approaches to find genes. Earlier researchers had to do a viral culture in the laboratory to develop a vaccine, and this was time-consuming. The major advantage of reverse vaccinology is finding vaccine targets quickly and efficiently.

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