Brown Dwarfs:

A brown dwarf is a type of substellar object that has a mass between those of the heaviest gas giant planets and the least massive stars. i.e., approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter.

  • Brown dwarfs are also called failed stars because their masses are intermediate to the largest planets and the smallest main sequence stars.
  • Their masses being too small, they are unable to sustain fusion of their hydrogen to produce energy.
  • It is believed that some of the more massive brown dwarfs fuse deuterium or lithium and glow faintly.


Kailash Mansarovar:

A new and faster road route through Uttarakhand to reach Kailash Mansarovar, a pilgrimage site nestled in the Himalayas in Tibet, is complete and will soon be open to pilgrims, saving them time and an arduous trek of five days. Mount Kailash is a 6,638 m (21,778 ft) high peak in the Kailash Range, which forms part of the Trans Himalaya in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.

  • The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers:
  1. Indus,
  2. Sutlej,
  3. Brahmaputra,
  4. Karnali also is known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India.
  • The Kailash Mansarovar Yatra is undertaken by two routes,
  1. Lipulekh Pass in Uttarakhand– This route passes through a very mountainous area.
  2. Nathu La Pass in Sikkim– This route opened a few years ago in Sikkim is fully motorable.


India INX:

The India International Exchange Limited is India’s first international stock exchange. It is located at the International Financial Services Centre, GIFT City in Gujarat. It is a subsidiary of BSE Limited. It was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 9 January 2017.

  • It operates on EUREX T7, an advanced technology platform.
  • It is the world’s fastest exchange, with a turn-around time of 4 microseconds, it operates 22 hours a day, six days a week.
  • These timings facilitate international investors and Non-Resident Indians to trade from anywhere across the globe at their preferred timings.


Safeguards against Chemical Disasters in India:
  1. Bhopal Gas Leak (Processing of Claims) Act, 1985, which gives powers to the central government to secure the claims arising out of or connected with the Bhopal gas tragedy – Under the provisions of this Act, such claims are dealt with speedily and equitably.
  2. The Environment Protection Act, 1986 – It gives powers to the central government to undertake measures for improving the environment and set standards and inspect industrial units.
  3. Hazardous Waste (Management Handling and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 1989 – Industry required to identify major accident hazards, take preventive measures and submit a report to the designated authorities
  4. Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 – Importer must furnish complete product safety information to the competent authority and must transport imported chemicals in accordance with the amended rules.
  5. Chemical Accidents (Emergency, Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996 – Centre is required to constitute a central crisis group for the management of chemical accidents; set up a quick response mechanism termed as the crisis alert system. Each state is required to set up a crisis group and report on its work.
  6. The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 – which is an insurance meant to provide relief to persons affected by accidents that occur while handling hazardous substances.
  7. The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997 – under which the National Environment Appellate Authority can hear appeals regarding the restriction of areas in which any industries, operations or processes or class of industries, operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
  8. National Green Tribunal, 2010, provides for the establishment of a National Green Tribunal for effective and expeditious disposal of cases related to environmental protection and conservation of forests.


World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD):

World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) is an annual awareness-raising campaign highlighting the need for the conservation of migratory birds and their habitats. It has a global outreach and is an effective tool to help raise global awareness of the threats faced by migratory birds, their ecological importance, and the need for international cooperation to conserve them.

The World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) 2020 was observed on 9th May 2020. It helps to raise global awareness about threats faced by migratory birds, their ecological importance, and the need for international cooperation to conserve them.

The first WMBD was celebrated in 2006.

Organized By: The Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) together with Environment for the Americas (EFTA).

Theme: “Birds Connect Our World”.

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